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research & recommendations

This is a Crisis: Facing up to the Age of Environmental Breakdown    IPPR  February 2019   Human-induced environmental change is occurring at an unprecedented scale and pace & the window of opportunity to avoid catastrophic outcomes in societies globally is rapidly closing. Disregard of environmental considerations in most areas of policy has been a catastrophic mistake.

This is a Crisis: Facing up to the Age of Environmental Breakdown

IPPR

February 2019

Human-induced environmental change is occurring at an unprecedented scale and pace & the window of opportunity to avoid catastrophic outcomes in societies globally is rapidly closing. Disregard of environmental considerations in most areas of policy has been a catastrophic mistake.

The Business Case for Investing in Soil Health    WBCSD  5 December 2018   There is an urgent need to mobilize nature-based solutions to address the challenges of climate change. Global soils contain 2-3 times more carbon than the atmosphere – by working with nature & improving soil health, increased carbon sequestration can reduce emissions & withstand some unavoidable effects of climate change.

The Business Case for Investing in Soil Health

WBCSD

5 December 2018

There is an urgent need to mobilize nature-based solutions to address the challenges of climate change. Global soils contain 2-3 times more carbon than the atmosphere – by working with nature & improving soil health, increased carbon sequestration can reduce emissions & withstand some unavoidable effects of climate change.

United by our environment, our food, our future    National Farmers’ Union  December 2018   With agriculture occupying over 70% of UK landmass, farm businesses play an irreplaceable role in looking after our cherished natural environment. This report looks at five key areas of the environment where farmers can, and do, play a key role in tackling the challenges we face – landscape, biodiversity, soil, water and air.

United by our environment, our food, our future

National Farmers’ Union

December 2018

With agriculture occupying over 70% of UK landmass, farm businesses play an irreplaceable role in looking after our cherished natural environment. This report looks at five key areas of the environment where farmers can, and do, play a key role in tackling the challenges we face – landscape, biodiversity, soil, water and air.

Back to the land: Rethinking our approach to soil    Campaign to Protect Rural England  November 2018   This is the third paper of our Food and Farming Foresight Series. We explore why soils are important and their main functions, and look at the key threats they face, from the way they are managed to their loss to farming when developed. The report also analyses why soils must be better protected in the future.

Back to the land: Rethinking our approach to soil

Campaign to Protect Rural England

November 2018

This is the third paper of our Food and Farming Foresight Series. We explore why soils are important and their main functions, and look at the key threats they face, from the way they are managed to their loss to farming when developed. The report also analyses why soils must be better protected in the future.

State of the World’s Fungi    Kew Royal Botanic Garden, 2018   These organisms are responsible for…global cycling of nutrients, carbon sequestration, & even the prevention of desertification in some drought-prone regions.

State of the World’s Fungi

Kew Royal Botanic Garden, 2018

These organisms are responsible for…global cycling of nutrients, carbon sequestration, & even the prevention of desertification in some drought-prone regions.

POSTnote: Trends in Agriculture    Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology  November 2018   Key drivers of global agricultural trends & the challenge of safeguarding both food production and environment value in a changing world.

POSTnote: Trends in Agriculture

Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology

November 2018

Key drivers of global agricultural trends & the challenge of safeguarding both food production and environment value in a changing world.

Living Planet Report: Aiming Higher    World Wide Fund for Nature  October 2018   All economic activity ultimately depends on services provided by nature… it’s clear that nature is not just a ‘nice to have’.

Living Planet Report: Aiming Higher

World Wide Fund for Nature

October 2018

All economic activity ultimately depends on services provided by nature… it’s clear that nature is not just a ‘nice to have’.

Global Warming of 1.5 ° : Summary for Policymakers    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  6 October 2018   Global warming is likely to reach 1.5° 2030 - 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate.

Global Warming of 1.5°: Summary for Policymakers

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

6 October 2018

Global warming is likely to reach 1.5° 2030 - 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate.

Opportunities for Soil Sustainability in Europe    European Academies Science Advisory Council  September 2018   Soil biodiversity & its contribution to above-ground diversity, modern farming, plant and human health (&) interactions between soil & climate change.

Opportunities for Soil Sustainability in Europe

European Academies Science Advisory Council

September 2018

Soil biodiversity & its contribution to above-ground diversity, modern farming, plant and human health (&) interactions between soil & climate change.

Greenhouse Gas Removal    The Royal Society / Royal Academy of Engineering  September 2018   Draws on a breadth of expertise to identify the range of available greenhouse gas removal methods, the factors that will affect their use & how they may be deployed together to meet climate targets.

Greenhouse Gas Removal

The Royal Society / Royal Academy of Engineering

September 2018

Draws on a breadth of expertise to identify the range of available greenhouse gas removal methods, the factors that will affect their use & how they may be deployed together to meet climate targets.

Soil natural capital valuation in agri-food businesses    Valuing Nature Programme / CEH  6 September 2018   Natural Capital… lies at the heart of the 25 Year Environment Plan & is set to play an increasingly influential role in public policy and business decision-making.

Soil natural capital valuation in agri-food businesses

Valuing Nature Programme / CEH

6 September 2018

Natural Capital… lies at the heart of the 25 Year Environment Plan & is set to play an increasingly influential role in public policy and business decision-making.

The influence of soil communities on temperature sensitivity of soil respiration    Nature Ecology & Evolution  27 August 2018   Soils in the northern regions of Europe, America and Asia contain more microbes and smaller animals than those in southern regions & the tropics.

The influence of soil communities on temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

Nature Ecology & Evolution

27 August 2018

Soils in the northern regions of Europe, America and Asia contain more microbes and smaller animals than those in southern regions & the tropics.

The animal welfare and environmental benefits of Pasture for Life farming    Pasture-Fed Livestock Association  August 2018   Seeks to address the environmental and animal welfare benefits of the raising of ruminants wholly on pasture.

The animal welfare and environmental benefits of Pasture for Life farming

Pasture-Fed Livestock Association

August 2018

Seeks to address the environmental and animal welfare benefits of the raising of ruminants wholly on pasture.

Institutional Economics of Agricultural Soil Ecosystem Services    Sustainability  13 July 2018   Using the new institutional economics perspective (to) substantiate the intuition that land property implies special obligation towards the common good.

Institutional Economics of Agricultural Soil
Ecosystem Services

Sustainability

13 July 2018

Using the new institutional economics perspective (to) substantiate the intuition that land property implies special obligation towards the common good.

Critical Decline of Earthworms from Organic Origins under Intensive, Humic SOM-Depleting Agriculture    Soil Systems  June 2018   Organic farming lessens humic degradation, conserves essential soil moisture and produces equivalent or higher crop yields at lower cost.

Critical Decline of Earthworms from Organic Origins under Intensive, Humic SOM-Depleting Agriculture

Soil Systems

June 2018

Organic farming lessens humic degradation, conserves essential soil moisture and produces equivalent or higher crop yields at lower cost.

State of the Environment report: Water resources and quality    Environment Agency  May 2018   If we do not increase water supply, reduce demand and cut down on wastage, many areas will face significant water deficits by 2050.

State of the Environment report: Water resources and quality

Environment Agency

May 2018

If we do not increase water supply, reduce demand and cut down on wastage, many areas will face significant water deficits by 2050.

Towards a Wilder Britain    The Wildlife Trusts  May 2018   The Trusts are calling for a wilder, better Britain. Nature needs to recover, for better health, climate control, flood management, enjoyment, employment & more.

Towards a Wilder Britain

The Wildlife Trusts

May 2018

The Trusts are calling for a wilder, better Britain. Nature needs to recover, for better health, climate control, flood management, enjoyment, employment & more.

Saving the Earth: A sustainable future for soils and water    World Wide Fund for Nature  April 2018   Only 14% of rivers in England are classed as healthy. Poor farming and land management are among the main causes.

Saving the Earth: A sustainable future for soils and water

World Wide Fund for Nature

April 2018

Only 14% of rivers in England are classed as healthy. Poor farming and land management are among the main causes.

Soils & Climate: From hidden depths to centre stage?    Hoffman Centre for Sustainable Resource Economy  March 2018   Knowledge gaps and priorities to accelerate soil organic carbon storage & sequestration.

Soils & Climate: From hidden depths to centre stage?

Hoffman Centre for Sustainable Resource Economy

March 2018

Knowledge gaps and priorities to accelerate soil organic carbon storage & sequestration.

Future Farming and Environment Evidence Compendium    Defra  February 2018   Farmers & land managers manage 72% of the UK's land, & through them we can safeguard our natural environment .

Future Farming and Environment Evidence Compendium

Defra

February 2018

Farmers & land managers manage 72% of the UK's land, & through them we can safeguard our natural environment.

European Soil Degradation case studies    Recare Project, 2018   17 Case Studies of soil threats to study the various conditions that occur across Europe & find responses using an innovative approach combining scientific and local knowledge.

European Soil Degradation case studies

Recare Project, 2018

17 Case Studies of soil threats to study the various conditions that occur across Europe & find responses using an innovative approach combining scientific and local knowledge.

Natural Investment: Futureproofing food production in the UK    Green Alliance, 2017   Food production and agriculture are vital to the UK economy. Yet cheap food has come at the expense of the people & natural systems that produce it.

Natural Investment: Futureproofing food production in the UK

Green Alliance, 2017

Food production and agriculture are vital to the UK economy. Yet cheap food has come at the expense of the people & natural systems that produce it.

The European Nitrogen Assessment 6 years after    2017   What the first Nitrogen Assessment achieved, emerging research challenges & how research and policy application needs to be developed in future.

The European Nitrogen Assessment 6 years after

2017

What the first Nitrogen Assessment achieved, emerging research challenges & how research and policy application needs to be developed in future.

Lowland peatland systems in England & Wales – Evaluating greenhouse gas fluxes and carbon balances    Final report to Defra, CEH  2017   Lowland peatlands represent one of the most carbon-rich ecosystems in the UK & are now amongst the largest sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Lowland peatland systems in England & Wales – Evaluating greenhouse gas fluxes and carbon balances

Final report to Defra, CEH

2017

Lowland peatlands represent one of the most carbon-rich ecosystems in the UK & are now amongst the largest sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The Hidden Cost of UK Food: Soil Degradation    Sustainable Food Trust  May 2018   Globally, more than half of all soils are now classified as degraded. The loss of soil carbon across the UK costs us £3.21bn per year & an est. $6.3 to $10.6 trillion at a global level.

The Hidden Cost of UK Food: Soil Degradation

Sustainable Food Trust

May 2018

Globally, more than half of all soils are now classified as degraded. The loss of soil carbon across the UK costs us £3.21bn per year & an est. $6.3 to $10.6 trillion at a global level.

The Hidden Cost of UK Food    Sustainable Food Trust  November 2017   The food we eat costs us about twice as much as it appears in our shopping bills. For every £1 UK consumers spend on food, additional costs of around £1 are incurred.

The Hidden Cost of UK Food

Sustainable Food Trust

November 2017

The food we eat costs us about twice as much as it appears in our shopping bills. For every £1 UK consumers spend on food, additional costs of around £1 are incurred.

Assessing the costs of Environmental Land Management in the UK    RSPB / National Trust / Wildlife Trusts  October 2017   Agriculture ... has had the single greatest impact on wildlife & the environment compared to any other driver of change.

Assessing the costs of Environmental Land Management in the UK

RSPB / National Trust / Wildlife Trusts

October 2017

Agriculture ... has had the single greatest impact on wildlife & the environment compared to any other driver of change.

Safeguarding the UK's soils: A policy briefing    Soil Association  October 2017   The commitment to the '4/1000' initiative to increase soil carbon by 0.4% year-on-year is welcome, but Gov’t policies remain piecemeal and inadequate.

Safeguarding the UK's soils: A policy briefing

Soil Association

October 2017

The commitment to the '4/1000' initiative to increase soil carbon by 0.4% year-on-year is welcome, but Gov’t policies remain piecemeal and inadequate.

Natural Climate Solutions    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA  October 2017   Natural climate solutions can provide 37% of CO2 mitigation needed through 2030 for a >66% chance of holding warming to below 2 °  C.

Natural Climate Solutions

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA

October 2017

Natural climate solutions can provide 37% of CO2 mitigation needed through 2030 for a >66% chance of holding warming to below 2° C.

Soil for sustainable food production and ecosystem services    Agriculture & Fisheries Council  October 2017   Currently, regulations on soils are significantly lacking regarding the balance of soil-air-water.

Soil for sustainable food production and ecosystem services

Agriculture & Fisheries Council

October 2017

Currently, regulations on soils are significantly lacking regarding the balance of soil-air-water.

Advice to Government on the 25 Year Environment Plan    Natural Capital Committee  September 2017   A huge economic & social opportunity. A healthy environment is the basis of sustainable economic growth.

Advice to Government on the 25 Year Environment Plan

Natural Capital Committee

September 2017

A huge economic & social opportunity. A healthy environment is the basis of sustainable economic growth.

Soils and Natural Flood Management: Devon and Cornwall    Environment Agency  August 2017   The natural storage capacity of soil can be easily lost due to compaction resulting from the way land is managed.

Soils and Natural Flood Management: Devon and Cornwall

Environment Agency

August 2017

The natural storage capacity of soil can be easily lost due to compaction resulting from the way land is managed.

Trends in critical load & critical level exceedances in the UK    Centre for Ecology & Hydrology  August 2017   Critical loads define the amount of acid or nitrogen deposition above which significant harmful effects are expected to occur to sensitive habitats.

Trends in critical load & critical level exceedances in the UK

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology

August 2017

Critical loads define the amount of acid or nitrogen deposition above which significant harmful effects are expected to occur to sensitive habitats.

Meeting Carbon Budgets: Closing the policy gap    Committee on Climate Change  June 2017   The UK urgently needs new policies to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change will not wait while other priorities are addressed.

Meeting Carbon Budgets: Closing the policy gap

Committee on Climate Change

June 2017

The UK urgently needs new policies to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change will not wait while other priorities are addressed.

Soil degradation by intensive UK agriculture & how to reverse it    University of Sheffield  June 2017   Soil degradation by agriculture threatens future food security for our increasing global population (&) has implications for a number of key policy areas.

Soil degradation by intensive UK agriculture & how to reverse it

University of Sheffield

June 2017

Soil degradation by agriculture threatens future food security for our increasing global population (&) has implications for a number of key policy areas.

Aligning Agriculture & Climate Policy    Nature  28 April 2017   The 4‰ initiative to sequester carbon in soils has the potential to connect sustainable development goals, enhance food security and mitigate climate change by utilizing waste organic residues.

Aligning Agriculture & Climate Policy

Nature

28 April 2017

The 4‰ initiative to sequester carbon in soils has the potential to connect sustainable development goals, enhance food security and mitigate climate change by utilizing waste organic residues.

Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas    Joint Research Centre  2016   First global compilation of soil biodiversity focuses on how this dazzling, spectacular world beneath our feet works to provide us with benefits necessary for life.

Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas

Joint Research Centre

2016

First global compilation of soil biodiversity focuses on how this dazzling, spectacular world beneath our feet works to provide us with benefits necessary for life.

Assessment of the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources    Welsh Government  2016   Links the resilience of Welsh natural resources to wellbeing of the people. Poorly managed natural resources increase long-term risks to our wellbeing.

Assessment of the Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Welsh Government

2016

Links the resilience of Welsh natural resources to wellbeing of the people. Poorly managed natural resources increase long-term risks to our wellbeing.

Soil Stakeholders' Conference    European Commission  December 2016   The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission organised an EU Soil Stakeholders' Conference to raise awareness of the importance of soils and the ecosystem services they deliver.

Soil Stakeholders' Conference

European Commission

December 2016

The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission organised an EU Soil Stakeholders' Conference to raise awareness of the importance of soils and the ecosystem services they deliver.

Comprehensive Assessment of Soil Health    Cornell University  September 2016   Qualitative on-farm, in-field assessment of soil health does not need to involve special analyses, only informed observation and interpretation of soil characteristics.

Comprehensive Assessment of Soil Health

Cornell University

September 2016

Qualitative on-farm, in-field assessment of soil health does not need to involve special analyses, only informed observation and interpretation of soil characteristics.

Soil Health Indicators    Rothamsted Research / NIAB  2016   Biological indicators inc. visual evaluation of structure; molecular methods; meta-genomic analysis; expert assessment of indicators; soil monitoring networks; and tests used by UK farmers.

Soil Health Indicators

Rothamsted Research / NIAB

2016

Biological indicators inc. visual evaluation of structure; molecular methods; meta-genomic analysis; expert assessment of indicators; soil monitoring networks; and tests used by UK farmers.

Living Planet Report: Risk & resilience in a new era    WWF, 2016   We are beginning to understand a diverse, healthy, resilient & productive natural environment is the foundation for a prosperous, just and safe future for humanity.

Living Planet Report: Risk & resilience in a new era

WWF, 2016

We are beginning to understand a diverse, healthy, resilient & productive natural environment is the foundation for a prosperous, just and safe future for humanity.

Five GREAT Soil Assessment Method    AHDB  Summer 2016   Most farmers and growers understand the importance of soil health for productivity, sustainability and profitability, but many face significant challenges.

Five GREAT Soil Assessment Method

AHDB

Summer 2016

Most farmers and growers understand the importance of soil health for productivity, sustainability and profitability, but many face significant challenges.

Agroecology Soil Inquiry    UK APPG on Agroecology  June 2016   Raises serious concerns about the state of UK soil, concluding with recommendations for climate change; knowledge; testing and data collection; and farming methods.

Agroecology Soil Inquiry

UK APPG on Agroecology

June 2016

Raises serious concerns about the state of UK soil, concluding with recommendations for climate change; knowledge; testing and data collection; and farming methods.

Preventing soil compaction: Preserving & restoring soil fertility    Umwelt  May 2016   Especially detrimental is soil compaction which occurs deep in the subsoil, as this compaction cannot be reversed with normal soil cultivation .

Preventing soil compaction: Preserving & restoring soil fertility

Umwelt

May 2016

Especially detrimental is soil compaction which occurs deep in the subsoil, as this compaction cannot be reversed with normal soil cultivation.

Seven Ways to Save Our Soils    The Soil Association  March 2016   Our soils are degrading, and so, therefore, is the long-term ability for farmers to keep up food production. This report outlines 7 key ways to increase Soil Organic Matter in UK arable and horticultural soils by 20% over the next 20 years.

Seven Ways to Save Our Soils

The Soil Association

March 2016

Our soils are degrading, and so, therefore, is the long-term ability for farmers to keep up food production. This report outlines 7 key ways to increase Soil Organic Matter in UK arable and horticultural soils by 20% over the next 20 years.

Soil Health: A response from the BES to the Environmental Audit Committee    January 2016   An effective strategy should incorporate both urban and agricultural soils; establish baseline data; have a long-term commitment to monitoring; & be incorporated in to decision-making processes.

Soil Health: A response from the BES to the Environmental Audit Committee

January 2016

An effective strategy should incorporate both urban and agricultural soils; establish baseline data; have a long-term commitment to monitoring; & be incorporated in to decision-making processes.

Changing climate and nutrient transfers    Science of the Total Environment  January 2016   More large storms in the future will increase the loss of valuable soil and nutrients from agricultural fields… farmers in the NW are once again struggling with waterlogged soil, livestock and crop loss.

Changing climate and nutrient transfers

Science of the Total Environment

January 2016

More large storms in the future will increase the loss of valuable soil and nutrients from agricultural fields… farmers in the NW are once again struggling with waterlogged soil, livestock and crop loss.

Soil Health and What to Measure -Resilience, productivity and life    AHDB  2016   The project aims to inspire growers to develop their ability to assess the health of their soil, and give growers practical solutions to improve soil health.

Soil Health and What to Measure -Resilience, productivity and life

AHDB

2016

The project aims to inspire growers to develop their ability to assess the health of their soil, and give growers practical solutions to improve soil health.

Improving soils for Better Returns    AHDB  2016   This manual offers useful advice to help improve knowledge and management of farmland soil...to produce healthy crops and livestock whilst improving the environment.

Improving soils for Better Returns

AHDB

2016

This manual offers useful advice to help improve knowledge and management of farmland soil...to produce healthy crops and livestock whilst improving the environment.

Soil and its Sustainability    Nature  2015   A collection of articles that explore soil in its manifold roles in shaping environment & society. Make-up & management of soils, their influence on human health and extreme poverty, are some topics investigated.

Soil and its Sustainability

Nature

2015

A collection of articles that explore soil in its manifold roles in shaping environment & society. Make-up & management of soils, their influence on human health and extreme poverty, are some topics investigated.

Status of the World's Soil Resources    Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations  2015   The majority of soils are in only fair, poor or very poor condition... and getting worse in far more cases than they are improving.

Status of the World's Soil Resources

Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

2015

The majority of soils are in only fair, poor or very poor condition... and getting worse in far more cases than they are improving.

Soils Research - Evidence Review    Soil Security Programme  October 2015   Sustainable soils are essential for the future delivery of a variety of ecosystem services. UK governments are committed to promoting sustainable soil management.

Soils Research - Evidence Review

Soil Security Programme

October 2015

Sustainable soils are essential for the future delivery of a variety of ecosystem services. UK governments are committed to promoting sustainable soil management.

Natural Flood Management Handbook    Scottish Environment Protection Agency  December 2015   A more integrated, catchment based approach to the management of land & water can bring about whole catchment improvements & multiple benefits to society.

Natural Flood Management Handbook

Scottish Environment Protection Agency

December 2015

A more integrated, catchment based approach to the management of land & water can bring about whole catchment improvements & multiple benefits to society.

A review of the impacts of degradation threats on soil properties in the UK    Soil Use and Management  September 2015   National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources & shaping strategies accordingly.

A review of the impacts of degradation threats on soil properties in the UK

Soil Use and Management

September 2015

National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources & shaping strategies accordingly.

Consultation on new basic rules for farmers to tackle diffuse water pollution from agriculture in England    DEFRA  September 2015   We need to do more if we are to protect and improve our water environment and conserve all the benefits it gives us.

Consultation on new basic rules for farmers to tackle diffuse water pollution from agriculture in England

DEFRA

September 2015

We need to do more if we are to protect and improve our water environment and conserve all the benefits it gives us.

Opportunities for Cover Crops in Conventional Arable Rotations    Agri Intelligence  August 2015   Cover crops can be used repeatedly as part of a long-term strategy to improve soil quality, organic matter and provide other benefits.

Opportunities for Cover Crops in Conventional Arable Rotations

Agri Intelligence

August 2015

Cover crops can be used repeatedly as part of a long-term strategy to improve soil quality, organic matter and provide other benefits.

The total costs of soil degradation in England and Wales    Ecological Economics  July 2015   The way soils are used often results in their degradation, giving rise to significant costs to direct users of soils and society as a whole.

The total costs of soil degradation in England and Wales

Ecological Economics

July 2015

The way soils are used often results in their degradation, giving rise to significant costs to direct users of soils and society as a whole.

Research to develop the evidence base on soil erosion & water use in agriculture    Cranfield University  June 2015   To better understand the factors that influence vulnerability of land to soil erosion, and how these vary over space and time.

Research to develop the evidence base on soil erosion & water use in agriculture

Cranfield University

June 2015

To better understand the factors that influence vulnerability of land to soil erosion, and how these vary over space and time.

Runaway Maize: Subsidised soil destruction    Soil Association  June 2015   Maize is probably the UK’s most rapidly growing crop. Research, 2014, found that 75% of late harvested maize sites showed high or severe levels of soil degradation.

Runaway Maize: Subsidised soil destruction

Soil Association

June 2015

Maize is probably the UK’s most rapidly growing crop. Research, 2014, found that 75% of late harvested maize sites showed high or severe levels of soil degradation.

Summary of Evidence: Soils    Natural England  May 2015   This summary sets out Natural England's assessment of the key evidence relating to soils and their conservation and management. It provides a statement of current evidence base.

Summary of Evidence: Soils

Natural England

May 2015

This summary sets out Natural England's assessment of the key evidence relating to soils and their conservation and management. It provides a statement of current evidence base.

Input constraints to food production: The impact of soil degradation    Food Security  March 2015   Comprehensive soil conservation practices are required to respond to multiple problems of soil degradation if the world is to be able to feed more than 9bn people by 2050.

Input constraints to food production: The impact of soil degradation

Food Security

March 2015

Comprehensive soil conservation practices are required to respond to multiple problems of soil degradation if the world is to be able to feed more than 9bn people by 2050.

Mitigating arable soil compaction: A review & analysis of available cost and benefit data    Soil & Tillage Research  September 2014   All soil compaction avoidance technologies increase gross margins, decrease leaching & emissions of nitrogen & require less fuel, providing a win–win for farmers & environment.

Mitigating arable soil compaction: A review & analysis of available cost and benefit data

Soil & Tillage Research

September 2014

All soil compaction avoidance technologies increase gross margins, decrease leaching & emissions of nitrogen & require less fuel, providing a win–win for farmers & environment.

Soil structural degradation in SW England & its impact on surface-water runoff generation    Soil Use and Management, 2013   Investigations 2002- 2011 identified soil structural degradation to be widespread in SW England with 38% sufficiently degraded to produce enhanced surface‐water runoff.

Soil structural degradation in SW England & its impact on surface-water runoff generation

Soil Use and Management, 2013

Investigations 2002- 2011 identified soil structural degradation to be widespread in SW England with 38% sufficiently degraded to produce enhanced surface‐water runoff.

Soil Erosion in Britain: Updating the Record    Agriculture Journal  August 2013   Concern about soil erosion on arable land in Britain dates back at least 40 years. Initial concern focused on impacts on the farm and therefore on food production. Latterly the emphasis has shifted to off-farm impacts.

Soil Erosion in Britain: Updating the Record

Agriculture Journal

August 2013

Concern about soil erosion on arable land in Britain dates back at least 40 years. Initial concern focused on impacts on the farm and therefore on food production. Latterly the emphasis has shifted to off-farm impacts.

Indicators of soil quality - physical properties    Cranfield University  September 2012   Meaningful soil quality indicators...are needed for the successful implementation of a soil monitoring programme in England and Wales.

Indicators of soil quality - physical properties

Cranfield University

September 2012

Meaningful soil quality indicators...are needed for the successful implementation of a soil monitoring programme in England and Wales.

No-till: Opportunities & challenges for cereal and oilseed growers    HGCA / AHDB  Spring 2012   The objective of no-till is to reduce production costs while maintaining or increasing yields with possible added environmental benefits.

No-till: Opportunities & challenges for cereal and oilseed growers

HGCA / AHDB

Spring 2012

The objective of no-till is to reduce production costs while maintaining or increasing yields with possible added environmental benefits.

CO2 Emissions Report: La Fattoria La Vialla    University of Siena  2012   An ongoing study carried out to quantify emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases associated with the activities at Fattoria La Vialla, Tuscany, 2012.

CO2 Emissions Report: La Fattoria La Vialla

University of Siena

2012

An ongoing study carried out to quantify emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases associated with the activities at Fattoria La Vialla, Tuscany, 2012.

The total costs of soil degradation in England and Wales    Cranfield University  June 2011   The continued provision of benefits from the soil to society is dependent on the physical, chemical & biological properties of the soil being maintained.

The total costs of soil degradation in England and Wales

Cranfield University

June 2011

The continued provision of benefits from the soil to society is dependent on the physical, chemical & biological properties of the soil being maintained.

Soil-related Bibliography and References    Cranfield University  2011   Papers, books and reports have been selected for users keen to develop understanding of soil processes & information systems, particularly with a UK focus.

Soil-related Bibliography and References

Cranfield University

2011

Papers, books and reports have been selected for users keen to develop understanding of soil processes & information systems, particularly with a UK focus.

Summary for policy makers    European Nitrogen Assessment  May 2011   Too much nitrogen harms environment & economy. Increased use of reactive nitrogen as fertiliser has adverse affects on the environment and human health.

Summary for policy makers

European Nitrogen Assessment

May 2011

Too much nitrogen harms environment & economy. Increased use of reactive nitrogen as fertiliser has adverse affects on the environment and human health.

Think Soils: Examining soil structure    Environment Agency  February 2010   Diagnosing the state of soils isn't always easy. Soil condition can vary considerably across a field and at different depths, and can vary throughout the year depending on land management.

Think Soils: Examining soil structure

Environment Agency

February 2010

Diagnosing the state of soils isn't always easy. Soil condition can vary considerably across a field and at different depths, and can vary throughout the year depending on land management.

Countryside Survey: Soils Report from 2007    CEH  January 2010   Identifying links between soil variables measured, vegetation & water quality changes…and the change of our environment from man's activities such as land use, air pollution and climate change.

Countryside Survey: Soils Report from 2007

CEH

January 2010

Identifying links between soil variables measured, vegetation & water quality changes…and the change of our environment from man's activities such as land use, air pollution and climate change.

The Factory of Life: Why soil biodiversity is so important    European Commission  2010   Biodiversity loss & climate change are two of the most pressing challenges of our time, & soil is part of the solution to both. Yet it is under constant threat, largely from activities we can control.

The Factory of Life: Why soil biodiversity is so important

European Commission

2010

Biodiversity loss & climate change are two of the most pressing challenges of our time, & soil is part of the solution to both. Yet it is under constant threat, largely from activities we can control.

Results of Organic Research: Soil Analysis & Management    Institute of Organic Training & Advice  March 2009   Soil analysis… can be used to improve soil fertility through management. Soil structure is key to plant performance as it affects the ability of plant roots to access nutrients.

Results of Organic Research: Soil Analysis & Management

Institute of Organic Training & Advice

March 2009

Soil analysis… can be used to improve soil fertility through management. Soil structure is key to plant performance as it affects the ability of plant roots to access nutrients.

Farming for cleaner water and healthier soil    Natural England  2009   Erosion and runoff can result in valuable nutrients and environmentally damaging sediments, pesticides and dangerous disease organisms reaching water.

Farming for cleaner water and healthier soil

Natural England

2009

Erosion and runoff can result in valuable nutrients and environmentally damaging sediments, pesticides and dangerous disease organisms reaching water.

Natural Susceptibility to Soil Compaction in Europe    European Soil Data Centre  2008   The evaluation of the soil’s susceptibility is based on the creation of logical connections between relevant parameters.

Natural Susceptibility to Soil Compaction in Europe

European Soil Data Centre

2008

The evaluation of the soil’s susceptibility is based on the creation of logical connections between relevant parameters.

The Current Status of Soil & Water Management in England    Royal Agricultural Society of England  2008   Soil & water management face a considerable challenge in meeting the demands of increasing food production and security at both a national and international level…

The Current Status of Soil & Water Management in England

Royal Agricultural Society of England

2008

Soil & water management face a considerable challenge in meeting the demands of increasing food production and security at both a national and international level…

Design and Operation of a UK Soil Monitoring Network    Environment Agency  2008   Since 2003, the UK Soils Indicator Consortium has been working to develop a set of indicators of soil function that will allow us to monitor current status & change in soil quality.

Design and Operation of a UK Soil Monitoring Network

Environment Agency

2008

Since 2003, the UK Soils Indicator Consortium has been working to develop a set of indicators of soil function that will allow us to monitor current status & change in soil quality.

Erosion of arable soils in Britain    International Journal of Environmental Studies  February 2007   Current agricultural practices are increasing the magnitude & extent of soil erosion in Britain and other parts of Europe. Proposed strategies for soil conservation include-

Erosion of arable soils in Britain

International Journal of Environmental Studies

February 2007

Current agricultural practices are increasing the magnitude & extent of soil erosion in Britain and other parts of Europe. Proposed strategies for soil conservation include-

The development & use of soil quality indicators for assessing the role of soil in environmental interactions    Environment Agency  March 2006   Attempts to establish indicators of soil quality which could be used to monitor the state of soils on a nationwide scale.

The development & use of soil quality indicators for assessing the role of soil in environmental interactions

Environment Agency

March 2006

Attempts to establish indicators of soil quality which could be used to monitor the state of soils on a nationwide scale.

Muddy flooding on the South Downs    University of Edinburgh  2005   It is proposed that the floods of autumn 2000 were caused and exacerbated by inappropriate land use. The growth of winter cereal crops on the Downs leaves soils without cover at the wettest time of year, leading to accelerated soil erosion and flooding.

Muddy flooding on the South Downs

University of Edinburgh

2005

It is proposed that the floods of autumn 2000 were caused and exacerbated by inappropriate land use. The growth of winter cereal crops on the Downs leaves soils without cover at the wettest time of year, leading to accelerated soil erosion and flooding.

The state of soils in England and Wales    Environment Agency  March 2004   Diversity of life below ground far exceeds that above & is vital to soil health & function, but connections are only just beginning to be explored. While some impacts of mismanaging soil are obvious, dealing with them effectively requires a better knowledge.

The state of soils in England and Wales

Environment Agency

March 2004

Diversity of life below ground far exceeds that above & is vital to soil health & function, but connections are only just beginning to be explored. While some impacts of mismanaging soil are obvious, dealing with them effectively requires a better knowledge.

Soil erosion and flooding on the eastern South Downs, 1976-2001    Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers  June 2003   The South Downs have been farmed for 5000 yrs: the initial cover is now a thin, stony remnant as a result of erosion. Current farming systems clearly are unsustainable.

Soil erosion and flooding on the eastern South Downs, 1976-2001

Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

June 2003

The South Downs have been farmed for 5000 yrs: the initial cover is now a thin, stony remnant as a result of erosion. Current farming systems clearly are unsustainable.

Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution    UK Groundwater Forum  1998   The accumulation of soluble forms of nitrogen in water can be detrimental since high concentrations in river water encourage eutrophication, and concentrations in drinking water must be limited for health reasons.

Nitrate and Pesticide Pollution

UK Groundwater Forum

1998

The accumulation of soluble forms of nitrogen in water can be detrimental since high concentrations in river water encourage eutrophication, and concentrations in drinking water must be limited for health reasons.